Mangrove Forest

06 May, 2011

Mangrove forests comes from the word mangue / Mangal (Portugish) and grove (Home). Mangrove forests also known as tidal forest, coastal Woodland, vloedbosschen, or too mangrove forest. Mangrove forests can be defined as a type of forest ecosystem that grows in the limit of the ebb and flow of water, specifically coastal areas and around estuaries. The plants are flooded during high water conditions and free from inundation in low tide conditions. Mangrove forests are the majority of coastal vegetation communities in the tropics and sub-tropics are dominated by mangroves on muddy coastal tidal areas, especially in places where there pelumpuran and accumulation of organic material. Mangrove is unique because it is a combination of traits of plants that live on land and at sea and classified the ecosystem transition or in other words to be where a mix of beach habitat and terrestrial habitats which are both united in these plants. Mangrove forests also play a role in balancing environmental quality and neutralize contaminants. Generally mangroves have a protruding root system, called the root of breath (pneumatofor). This root system is a way of adaptation to poor soil conditions of oxygen or even anaerobic. In the mangrove forest: soil, water, flora and fauna live give and take and create a cycle of its own ecosystem. Mangrove forests provide input of nutrients to aquatic ecosystems, providing shelter and care places for children of fish, where the mating / spawning, and others. The main food source for aquatic organisms in mangrove area is in the form of particles of organic material (detritus) resulting from the decomposition of mangrove litter (such as leaves, twigs and flowers). Mangrove forests are very different from other plants in tropical and subtropical forests inland, it can be said to be a forest on the seafront with amazing adaptability. Roots, which is always flooded by water, can tolerate extreme natural conditions such as high salinity and salt. This makes it very unique and become a habitat or ecosystem that is second to none. We often refer to the forest on the edge of the beach as mangrove forest. Actually, the forest is more appropriately called the mangrove forest. The term 'mangrove' is used as a substitute term mangroves to avoid possible misunderstanding by forests consisting of mangrove tree Rhizophora spp. Because not only mangrove trees that grow there. In addition to mangroves, there are many other plant species that live in it. Mangrove Forests widespread in parts of the world's hot enough, especially around the equator in the tropical and subtropical slightly. Area of ​​mangrove forests in Indonesia between 2.5 and 4.5 million hectares, is the largest mangrove in the world. Exceeded Brazil (1.3 million ha), Nigeria (1.1 million ha) and Australia (0.97 ha) (Spalding et al, 1997 in Noor et al, 1999).
Characteristics of Mangrove Forest
Mangrove forests have physical characteristics unique in the appeal of other crops. Mangrove forests have a canopy on a flat and dense and have always leaved tree species. The environment in which mangroves grow, has an extreme factors such as soil salinity and waterlogging the soil continuously. Although mangrove tolerant of saline soil (halophytes), but more mangroves are facultative rather than obligative because it can grow well in freshwater. This can be seen on the type of Bruguiera sexagula, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Sonneratia caseolaris and growing, fruiting and germination in the Bogor Botanical Gardens and the presence of mangrove forests along the banks of the Kapuas river, to the hinterland as far as over 200 km, in West Kalimantan. Mangrove forests also differ from land, in this particular mangrove species growing gather in a big place. Besides Rhizophora spp., Other mangrove species main constituent can grow in a "coppice". Association of mangrove forests in addition consists of a number of species that are tolerant of salt water and mud environment, even the forest can also be associated with brackish water in the upper reaches are almost entirely composed of stands of Nipah Nypa fruticans. The characteristics of the most important mangrove ecosystem of mangrove forest sightings, regardless of the unique habitat, are:
• have relatively few tree species;
• have irregular roots (pneumatofora) such as anchor curved and looming on the mangrove Rhizophora spp., And roots that are sticking out like a pencil vertically on Pidada Sonneratia spp. and the fires of Avicennia spp.;
• have seeds (propagules) that are viviparous or can germinate on the tree, especially on Rhizophora;
• have a lot of lenticels on the bark.
While the life of mangrove forest is a habitat that is unique and has specific characteristics of mangrove ecosystems, including:
• land periodically inundated by sea water, either every day or only at high tide flooded the first;
• where it receives an adequate supply of fresh water from land;
• the area is protected from large waves and strong tidal currents;
• water salinity (salinity), brackish (2-22 o / oo) to salty.
Functions and Benefits of Mangrove Forest
Mangrove forests have the functions and benefits that are very important for forest ecosystems, water and natural surroundings. Physically, mangrove forests and useful functions as: drag sea abrasion; retaining intrusion (infiltration) of sea water; windbreak; decreased the content of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air, and contaminants in coastal swamp waters. In Biology of mangroves and useful functions as: a place to live (shelter, foraging, breeding and upbringing) marine biota such as fish and shrimp); source of organic material as the source of the first consumer feed (feed worms, crabs and shellfish group / snail), which subsequently become a source of food for consumers on top of the food chain cycles in an ecosystem, where live many wild animals, like monkeys, estuarine crocodiles, monitor lizards and birds. Viewed from the function and social and economic benefits, mangrove forests also functions and useful as: a place of nature tourism activities (recreation, education and research); producing wood for timber, fuelwood, charcoal and paper materials, as well as palm leaves for the manufacture of roof home; producing tannin for the manufacture of inks, plastics, adhesives, preservatives net and tanneries; producer of food (fish / shrimp / crab, and sugar palm sap), and drugs (leaf Bruguiera sexangula for tumor inhibition, and Ceriops tagal Xylocarpus mollucensis to toothache medicine, etc.); the livelihoods of fishermen catching and farmers., and craftsmen roof and palm sugar.
Meanwhile, according to Davis, Claridge and Natarina (1995), mangrove forests have the functions and benefits as follows:
1. Habitat for endangered species
Mangroves often the habitat of wildlife species. More than 100 species of birds live here, and the land bordering a vast mud mangrove forest is a lightweight beach landing of thousands burug migrants, including rare bird species Blekok Asia (Limnodrumus semipalmatus)
2. Protection against natural disasters
Vegetation mangrove forest to protect buildings, agricultural crops or natural vegetation from damage by storms or salt-laden air through the filtration process.
3. Siltation
The physical properties of plants in mangrove forest assist the process of siltation. Siltation is closely related to the removal of toxins and water nutrients, because these materials are often bound to the sludge particles. With mangrove forest, Sea water quality awake from silt erosion.
4. Nutrient enhancer
The physical properties mangrove forest tends to slow the water flow and sedimentation. Along with this deposition process occurs nutrients derived from various sources, including leaching from agricultural areas.
5. Fastening poison
Many toxins that enter the aquatic ecosystem in a state bound to the surface of the mud or are in between the lattice water molecules soil particles. Some specific species in mangrove forest even help the process of actively toxic belay
6. Transportation
In some mangrove forests, transport through water is the most efficient and most suitable to the environment.
7. Source of germplasm
Germplasm of wild life is very beneficial both for the improvement of commercial species of animals and wildlife populations untukmemelihara itself.
8. Recreation and tourism
Mangroves have aesthetic value, both from natural factors and of life in it. The mangrove forests provide different attractions with other natural attractions. Characteristics of forests that are in transition between land and sea is unique in several respects. The tourists also get lessons on the environment directly from nature. This tourist activities in addition to providing direct income to the manager through the sale of entrance tickets and parking, are also able to grow the economy in the surrounding community by providing employment and business opportunities, such as open food stalls, rent a boat, and a tour guide.
9. Educational and research
Efforts development of science and technology requires a good field laboratory for research and educational activities.
10. Maintain the processes and natural systems
Mangroves very high role in supporting the ongoing processes of ecological, geomorphological, or geology in it.
11. Carbon sequestration
The process of change fotosentesis inorganic carbon (C02) into organic carbon in the form of vegetation. In most ecosystems, these materials decompose and release carbon back into the atmosphere as (C02). But mangrove forest it contains a large amount of organic material that does not rot. Therefore, mangrove forest function more as a carbon sink than a source of carbon.
12. Maintain climate micro
Evapotranspiration mangrove forest able to maintain ketembaban and rainfall region, so that the balance climate micro awake.
13. Prevent the development of acidic sulfate soil
Presence mangrove forest teroksidasinya layer can prevent pyrite and obstruct the development of natural conditions.

1 Comment:

Stephen8 said...

Mangrove just proved its vital importance. Very interesting post with neat photos. Liked much the reflection frame.

Mangrove Place

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